Syringomyelia: General

Comparision of results between posterior fossa decompression with and without duraplasty for the surgical treatment of Chiari malformation Type I:a systematic review and meta-analysis.
World Neurosurg. 2017 Nov 11. pii: S1878-8750(17)31889-2. Review.

A points-based algorithm for prognosticating clinical outcome of Chiari malformation Type I with syringomyelia: results from a predictive model analysis of 82 surgically managed adult patients
J Neurosurg Spine. 2017 Nov 10:1-10. 

  • A team of specialist from the Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences in Bangalore and the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India published a study in 82 adult patients with Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia. They evaluated factors that might predict outcome following surgery and found that patients with gait imbalance and motor deficits did not respond to surgery as well as those without these findings. They also found that patients with more pronounced Chiari I malformations were more likely to respond favorably to surgery.

Intradural pathology and pathophysiology associated with Chiari I malformation in children and adults with and without syringomyelia.
J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2017 Oct 13:1-16. 

The ultrastructure of spinal cord perivascular spaces: Implications for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Lam MA, Hemley SJ, Najafi E, Vella NGF, Bilston LE, Stoodley MA.
Nature Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 10;7(1):12924.

Syrinx to subarachnoid shunting for syringomyelia.
Davidson K, Rogers JM, Stoodley MA.
World Neurosurg. 2017 Oct 7.

  • The authors describe syrinx to subarachnoid shunting and outcome in 41 patients with syringomyelia. Their approach was found to be a “safe and effective treatment for idiopathic syringomyelia and for patients that are not suitable for, or have not responded to, other treatment.”

Characteristics of CSF Velocity-Time Profile in Posttraumatic Syringomyelia.
Yeo J, Cheng S, Hemley S, Lee BB, Stoodley M, Bilston L.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Sep;38(9):1839-1844.

  • Phase-contrast MR imaging was used to measure CSF flow velocity at various points in the within the spinal canal in six patients with posttraumatic syringomyelia and in matched healthy controls. While CSF flow was found to be “relatively uniform along the spinal canal” in posttraumatic cases, the timing of flow differed from normal controls. Further understanding of the factors leading to the altered timing could lead to more effective treatments.

Sustained high-pressure in the spinal subarachnoid space while arterial expansion is low may be linked to syrinx development.
Clarke EC, Fletcher DF, Bilston LE.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2017 Apr;20(5):457-467.

Longitudinal measurements of syrinx size in a rat model of posttraumatic syringomyelia.
Najafi E, Bilston LE, Song X, Bongers A, Stoodley MA, Cheng S, Hemley SJ.
J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Jun;24(6):941-8.

Direct-trauma model of posttraumatic syringomyelia with a computer-controlled motorized spinal cord impactor.
Wong JH, Song X, Hemley SJ, Bilston LE, Cheng S, Stoodley MA.
J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 May;24(5):797-805.

Cerebellar and hindbrain motion in Chiari malformation with and without syringomyelia.
Leung V, Magnussen JS, Stoodley MA, Bilston LE.
J Neurosurg Spine. 2016 Apr;24(4):546-55.

The Cervical Spinal Canal Tapers Differently in Patients with Chiari I with and without Syringomyelia.
Thompson A, Madan N, Hesselink JR, Weinstein G, Munoz del Rio A, Haughton V.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016 Apr;37(4):755-8.

Inwardly rectifying potassium channel 4.1 expression in post-traumatic syringomyelia.
Najafi E, Stoodley MA, Bilston LE, Hemley SJ.
Neuroscience. 2016 Mar 11;317:23-35.

Long-term results and complications of the syringopleural shunting for treatment of syringomyelia: a clinical study.
Br J Neurosurg. 2013 Feb;27(1):91-9.

Dorsal Thoracic Arachnoid Web and the "Scalpel Sign": A Distinct Clinical-Radiologic Entity.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013 Jan 24.

Pathophysiology of primary spinal syringomyelia.
Heiss JD, Snyder K, Peterson MM, Patronas NJ, Butman JA, Smith RK, Devroom HL, Sansur CA, Eskioglu E, Kammerer WA, Oldfield EH.
J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Nov;17(5):367-80.

Resolution of isolated syringomyelia after treatment of cervical disc herniation: association or coincidence?
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012;113(8):500-2.

Treatment of posttraumatic syringomyelia.
Klekamp J.
J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Sep;17(3):199-211.

Syringomyelia, limb hypertrophy and sympathetic overactivity: a rare association.
BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Jun 14;2012.

Spinal syringomyelia following subarachnoid hemorrhage.
J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Apr;19(4):594-7.


Ball JR, Little NS.
Chiari malformation, cervical disc prolapse and syringomyelia - always think twice.
J Clin Neurosci. 2008 Feb 5.

  • First case report of resolution of syringomyelia following decompression of a herniated cervical disc without treatment of the Chiari malformation.

Bertram CD, Bilston LE, Stoodley MA.
Tensile radial stress in the spinal cord related to arachnoiditis or tethering: a numerical model.
Med Biol Eng Comput. 2008 Mar 18.

Wetjen NM, Heiss JD, Oldfield EH.
Time course of syringomyelia resolution following decompression of Chiari malformation Type I.
J Neurosurg Pediatrics. 2008 Feb;1(2):118-23.

Rusbridge C, Jeffery ND.
Pathophysiology and treatment of neuropathic pain associated with syringomyelia.
Vet J. 2008 Feb;175(2):164-72. 

  • Study performed in dogs with syringomyelia.

Qiu Y, Zhu Z, Wang B, Yu Y, Qian B, Zhu F.
Radiological presentations in relation to curve severity in scoliosis associated with syringomyelia.
J Pediatr Orthop. 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1):128-33.

  • When should an MRI to looking for syringomyelia be performed on a child or adolescent with scoliosis? Qui et al. measured the scoliosis curves in 87 children and adolescents with syringomyelia and scoliosis. Over 40% were noted to have an atypical curve and 65% had a typical curve with atypical features. 
  • The study conclusion: "These results show that radiographic presentations including atypical curve patterns, atypical features in typical curve patterns, and a normal to hyperkyphotic thoracic spine may suggest the need for a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging."

Zhang ZQ, Chen YQ, Chen YA, Wu X, Wang YB, Li XG.
Chiari I malformation associated with syringomyelia: a retrospective study of 316 surgically treated patients.
Spinal Cord. 2007 Nov 20; [Epub ahead of print]

  • Large retrospective study from Qilu Hospital of Shandong University in China assessing  clinical outcome and extent of syrinx collapse following posterior fossa decompression. While the response in syrinx size varied, clinical improvement was noted in 94% of 218 patients available for follow-up.

Ruette P, Stuyck J, Debeer P.
Neuropathic arthropathy of the shoulder and elbow associated with syringomyelia: a report of 3 cases.
Acta Orthop Belg. 2007 Aug;73(4):525-9.

Koç K, Anik Y, Anik I, Cabuk B, Ceylan S.
Chiari 1 Malformation with Syringomyelia: Correlation of Phase-Contrast Cine MR Imaging and Outcome.
Turk Neurosurg. 2007;17(3):183-92.

  • Cine MRI in 18 surgical cases of CM-I and syringomyelia. Heterogenous spinal fluid flow seen pre-operatively improved or corrected to sinusoidal pattern following surgery.

Perrini P, Benedetto N, Tenenbaum R, Di Lorenzo N.
Extra-arachnoidal cranio-cervical decompression for syringomyelia associated with Chiari I malformation in adults: technique assessment.
Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2007 Aug 23; [Epub ahead of print]

Yeom JS, Lee CK, Park KW, Lee JH, Lee DH, Wang KC, Chang BS.
Scoliosis associated with syringomyelia: analysis of MRI and curve progression.
Eur Spine J. 2007 Aug 15; [Epub ahead of print] 

Porensky P, Muro K, Ganju A.
Nontraumatic cervicothoracic syrinx as a cause of progressive neurologic dysfunction.
J Spinal Cord Med. 2007;30(3):276-81. 

Lin JW, Lin MS, Lin CM, Tseng CH, Tsai SH, Kan IH, Chiu WT.
Idiopathic syringomyelia: case report and review of the literature.
Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2006;99:117-20. 

Butteriss DJ, Birchall D.
A case of syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylosis.
Br J Radiol. 2006 Oct;79(946):e123-5. 

Greitz D.
Unraveling the riddle of syringomyelia.
Neurosurg Rev. 2006 Oct;29(4):251-63; discussion 264. Epub 2006 May 31. Review. 

Holly LT, Batzdorf U.
Syringomyelia associated with intradural arachnoid cysts.
J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Aug;5(2):111-6. 

Robenek M, Kloska SP, Husstedt IW.
Evidence of familial syringomyelia in discordant association with Chiari type I malformation.
Eur J Neurol. 2006 Jul;13(7):783-5. 

Muthukumar N, Venkatesh G, Thiruppathy S.
Arrested hydrocephalus and the presyrinx state. Case report.
J Neurosurg. 2005 Nov;103(5 Suppl):466-70. 

Royo-Salvador MB, Sole-Llenas J, Domenech JM, Gonzalez-Adrio R.
Results of the section of the filum terminale in 20 patients with syringomyelia, scoliosis and Chiari malformation.
Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005 May;147(5):515-23; discussion 523

Doughty KE, Tubbs RS, Webb D, Oakes WJ.
Delayed resolution of Chiari I-associated hydromyelia after posterior fossa decompression: case report and review of the literature.
Neurosurgery. 2004 Sep;55(3):711. Review. 

Holly LT, Batzdorf U.
Slitlike syrinx cavities: a persistent central canal.
J Neurosurg. 2002 Sep;97(2 Suppl):161-5.

Alzate JC, Kothbauer KF, Jallo GI, Epstein FJ.
Treatment of Chiari I malformation in patients with and without syringomyelia: a consecutive series of 66 cases.
Neurosurg Focus. 2001 Jul 15;11(1):E3. 

Milhorat TH.
Classification of syringomyelia.
Neurosurg Focus. 2000 Mar 15;8(3):E1. 

Erkan K, Unal F, Kiris T, Karalar T.
Treatment of terminal syringomyelia in association with tethered cord syndrome: clinical outcomes with and without syrinx drainage.
Neurosurg Focus. 2000 Mar 15;8(3):E9. 

Fischbein NJ, Dillon WP, Cobbs C, Weinstein PR.
The "presyrinx" state: is there a reversible myelopathic condition that may precede syringomyelia?
Neurosurg Focus. 2000 Mar 15;8(3):E4. 

Heiss JD, Patronas N, DeVroom HL, Shawker T, Ennis R, Kammerer W, Eidsath A, Talbot T, Morris J, Eskioglu E, Oldfield EH.
Elucidating the pathophysiology of syringomyelia.
J Neurosurg. 1999 Oct;91(4):553-62.

Iskandar BJ, Hedlund GL, Grabb PA, Oakes WJ.
The resolution of syringohydromyelia without hindbrain herniation after posterior fossa decompression.
J Neurosurg. 1998 Aug;89(2):212-6. 

Sullivan LP, Stears JC, Ringel SP.
Resolution of syringomyelia and Chiari I malformation by ventriculoatrial shunting in a patient with pseudotumor cerebri and a lumboperitoneal shunt.
Neurosurgery. 1988 Apr;22(4):744-7.